|Study of highly and precisely controlled genetic programs that are responsible for animal development, from gametogenesis to adulthood.
The aim of this course is to introduce functional genetics and the genetic tools used to understand the principles that control animal development.
An introduction to Developmental Biology
- How do cells build a multicellular organism from the same genome ?
- What are the genotype/phenotype relationships ?
Remember the principles of genetic analysis and model organisms : the nature of mutations, loss of function and gain of function mutations (definition of a master gene), clonal analysis (of somatic or germ cells)
Study of regulatory elements
- Establishment of transgenetic lines, enhancer trap lines, reporter genes… using model organisms (Drosophila, C. elegans, mice…)
- Use of the systems FLP/FRT, CRE-LOX, UAS-GAL4-GAL80, AttpP/B-PhiC31 etc
Positional Information, maternal gene effects and asymmetry
Models and mechanisms of positional information (induction, organizers, morphogenesis)
Establishment of body axes : antero-posterior, dorsal-ventral and proximo-distal/ left-right axes
Cellular communication, signaling pathways and gene networks
Invertebrate and vertebrate segmentation :
Segmentation genes (gap, « pair rule » and polarity genes)
Transcriptional regulation of gene expression during development, regulatory sequences during evolution
Segmental identity and Hox homeotic genes
Spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression
Epigenetic regulation and 3D architecture of the genome.
Seminars on various topics (sex determination, epigenetic control by polycomb complexes, temporal control of transcription, temporal control of transcription, etc)
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